The creation of a text is a task that requires certain care. The text is a web of ideas that must be coherent with each other. There are several types of texts and all text needs to be well structured and written and for that, it is necessary to have a good language and knowledge of writing rules.
This article will show the different types of texts and some of their characteristics that facilitate when writing. Within the production of text, we have the academic text, which is a way of demonstrating scientific knowledge acquired in academic life.
This type of work has a specific form and its content must have scientific bases, but important detail in academic works is its presentation. In the article, we will talk about the importance of proofreading in this type of work.
The proofreader’s work is important in all areas that work with text, good proofreading is not only based on grammatical rules, it also aims to improve the structure and consistency of what has been written.
We will deal, in addition to the types of texts and, particularly, academic texts, text review and quality and credibility work that facilitate the reader’s understanding and the importance of the professional’s work in text review.
Due to the misinformation that exists in the publishing sector regarding the concepts and the terms that represent them (signifier and signified) it is common for someone to look for professional editing and proofreading services for an edition when what they are talking about is a spelling and style correction. The difference is abysmal.
Why Proofreading is important
So, to begin with, we are going to try and understand what a text is and then we will move on to explain the importance of proofreading and editing. After that in the final section, we are going to discuss why it is important to hire a professional proofreading service.
The Text and its Characteristics
The text definition is broad and inaccurate information. But a text can be well explained from the concept of a set of words and phrases articulated among themselves, forming a meaning. A text can be written or oral. A text is a linguistic occurrence, written or spoken of any length, endowed with a socio-communicative, semantic and formal unit. It is a unit of language in use.
The text must have structure, elements that establish a relationship with each other. Within the formal aspects, we have cohesion and coherence, which give meaning and form to the text. Textual cohesion is the relationship, the connection, the connection between the words, expressions or phrases of the text. Consistency is related to understanding, the interpretation of what is said or written. A text must have meaning, that is, it must have coherence.
Although cohesion is not a sufficient condition for statements to be constituted in texts, they are the cohesive elements that give them greater legibility and evidence of the relationships between its various components, coherence depends on cohesion. Texts can be literary, which are those that, in general, aim to move the reader, and for that, they explore the connotative or poetic language. In general, the emotive and poetic function is predominant. They can also be non-literary, which aims to inform the reader directly and objectively, using a denotative language. The referential function predominates in non-literary texts.
There are three types of text:
Narration consists of talking about the facts, that is, telling a story involving action and movement.
There are some fundamental elements in a narration which should be taken into consideration by proofreading service before beginning:
- The fact? it consists of what will be told, it must have a logical sequence that will be called a plot.
- The character? it is about who is spoken in the narration. Usually, there are main characters and secondary characters.
- The narrator? is the one who tells the story. It can be narrator-observer, which is not part of the story, in which case the narration will be done in third person and narrator-character, who is part of the story, in which case the narration will be done in the first person.
- Time? The time interval in which the event (s) occurs. There are two times in the narration: the chronological, that is, a specified time during the text and the psychological, where you know that there is an interval in which the actions occurred, but you cannot distinguish it.
- Space? it is essential and must be clarified at the beginning of the narrative so that the reader will be able to locate the action and imagine it with greater ease.
The descriptive text exposes the details of people, situations, scenarios, and objects that are part of the described fact. It is very common in a descriptive text to include a narrative or an argument. The description is the verbal representation of a sensitive object (being, thing, landscape), through the indication of its most characteristic aspects, the details that individualize it, that distinguish it.
There are literary and technical descriptions. In the first, what matters is the transmission of impressions that the object awakens in those who describe it; and, in fact, an interpretation of what is seen. The latter, on the other hand, constitute details of characteristics, aiming at accuracy, a kind of photograph of the object seen.
The essay is a text that is characterized by the presentation of an idea, from a point of view, or by questioning a certain subject. In general. To obtain greater clarity in the presentation of a point of view, it is customary to distribute the material in three parts while writing an essay:
Introduction: in which the idea or point of view to be defended is presented;
Development or argumentation: in which the point of view is developed to try to convince the reader; to do so, solid arguments must be used, examples should be cited, the expert opinion provided, data provided, etc.
Conclusion: in which the text is closed, consistent with the development, with the arguments presented.
As for language, the denotative meaning of words and the direct order of sentences prevail. Also, in the essay text, the coherence of ideas and the use of cohesive elements, especially the conjunctions that explain the relationships between the ideas exposed, are very important. Therefore, the elaboration of a dissertation text is not centered on the poetic function of language, but on the placement and defense of ideas and the way these ideas are articulated. When using a figure of speech, it should always be used with an argumentative value, as an additional instrument for the defense of a certain idea.
The academic-scientific text
This type of text is based on scientific questions, that is, what is written in this type of text must have scientific references proving its veracity. In this type of text, one cannot work with “guesses”, everything must be based on scientific works that deal with the related subject. It is essential to demonstrate which methods of research, analysis and data processing support research work.
The production of the academic-scientific text requires writing on topics that can be treated scientifically, in the light of experimentation, logical reasoning, analysis, and the application of a method/technique. This type of production aims to expose proven or verifiable information, disseminate own or other ideas, share knowledge, inform.
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It has a style marked by objectivity, precision, clarity, conciseness, simplicity, and formality and uses language respecting the cultured standard of writing, using specific terminology in the area of knowledge, a recurrence to the denotative sense of the word.
As of now, we have come to know about the type of text now we will describe what is important while proofreading and editing. Along with that, we will elaborate on how professional proofreading service like Best Essay Writing Service takes it to a professional level of proofreading and editing.
Important elements in proofing
Some points are important in the proofreading work. As far as the text is concerned, linguistic aspects come into play: lexical and terminological patterns, cohesion patterns and syntactic elements. There are also extra-textual aspects and reading experience which should be taken into account by the proofreading service that is being hired to improve the given text.
Cohesion and coherence
The construction of a text depends on the combination of factors that concern formal aspects and syntactic-semantic relations. A well-constructed text will be well interpreted and present textuality, characteristics that make it a text and not a sequence of sentences.
Among the factors of textuality is coherence, which assumes sub textual concepts and relationships. A text is coherent when compatible with the receiver’s knowledge of the world. Observing coherence allows us to perceive that a text does not exist in itself, but is built in the sender-receiver-world relationship.
A professional proofreading service knows it well that textual coherence consists of the well-articulated articulation between the elements of the text and the idea that holds it, the theme to which it refers. The subject must be stuck in the entire development of the text so that it remains in line with the statements from beginning to end. One cannot deny a fact (direct or indirectly) that was said earlier. The position taken at the beginning of the text must be maintained until completion.
Another important factor is cohesion, which is verified by analyzing its lexical and grammatical mechanisms of construction. The elements of cohesion also provide the text with the progression of the information flow, to carry on the discourse.
Textual cohesion is a grammatical articulation between the elements of the text. These elements, well worked, allow the resumption of terms previously expressed or anticipate their expression, in such a way, that the text becomes an intelligible, pleasant reading, does not have many repetitions and has well-defined references for its perfect understanding.
Grammatical norm and orthographic reform
All text must go through the spelling check. Every language has orthographic and grammatical rules that are not always simple and some of the publishing houses also demand authors to comply with these rules. But since the purpose of all written material is to convey ideas in a clear and well-constructed way, spelling review becomes an important part of the production of a text itself. To carry out the grammatical review, a greater understanding of the language syntax is necessary.
Syntax and punctuation
Punctuation is a convention that is not intended simply to imitate speech, but to order writing according to a specific standard code. To master punctuation rules, it is important to have some notions of syntax. As far as the proofreading service is concerned syntax and punctuation are done with the help of human editors. No software is used in any step of proofreading and editing.
It can also be said that syntax, that is, the organization of a language, implies some fundamental relations, such as regency, agreement, placement, which are studied throughout the course.
Placement is the mechanism that regulates the spatial arrangement of words in the sentence. The way words are arranged varies from language to language: each has its placement mechanisms. A sentence is in direct order when the words are arranged in the progression from the antecedent to the consequent.
The linguistic variation
As we know, the use of language varies according to a variety of factors. Linguistic variation is a topic that has become popular and has attracted great attention in recent years, especially from sociolinguists. A written text is different from an oral one. The academic text is different from the text of a letter. Many factors contribute to linguistic variations, such as education level, age, social and economic issues.
A professional proofreading service is capable of dealing with every kind of linguistic variation. During the elaboration of academic work, many students face a classic problem: the elaboration of the text. With reasonable frequency, it is common for students to transcribe in written form, a text with the characteristics of an oral text. The written text tends to be more objective, with a higher level of subordination and less vocabulary repetition.
Another common mistake is the level of linguistic formality. It is common to observe informal writing for the academic context, in particular for the course conclusion work. The language of academic work must reach a greater formality, but without hindering the understanding of the target audience, with words that are too far-fetched.
It is important to search for articles, dissertations and other academic works in the study area to compose an appropriate language for the work since what may be acceptable in one area may not be in another. The academic text tends to present specific vocabulary relevant to the area or specificity of meanings of certain terms.
In the case of linguistic variation, the work of proofreading service must be done together with the author of the text so that he can achieve an appropriate language without losing the idea and the essence of the text. The reviewer has the mastery of this formal language, but the specific language of the area must also be known to the student, thus facilitating the process of preparing and correcting the work.
Why is it important to hire Proofreading Services?
A professional proofreading service is highly sought after by students, professors’ bloggers, article writers, and book publishing teams. However, despite the personal qualities of the person writing, there are always certain details that escape and end up hindering the main concept of the written text. That is why a professional proofreading service suppresses the defects found in a text and at the same time, it highlights the virtues.
Academic work is one of the most important publications of academic life and must be written according to standards and follow an appropriate language. It is also important that it is cohesive and consistent and that the information provided is clear.
This article showed a brief analysis of the importance of proofreading in this type of work to adapt it to the context. There should always be this concern on the part of the author, to keep his work within academic requirements. The work of a proofreading service goes beyond grammatical correction, he seeks a better improvement of the text for presentation and presentation and, in the future, for publication.