How To Write An Introduction To A Research Paper? Do’s And Don’ts

How To Write An Introduction To A Research Paper? Do's And Don’ts

What is a research paper?

According to experts from research paper writing service, the quality of the work will depend largely on the quality of the questions. But that is not enough: we must offer provisional answers to these questions, in the form of hypotheses. Then, it is necessary to explain how these hypotheses are going to be tested, and what conclusions you want to reach. That is how a research paper is written. Now, so that this project, thus described, convinces a group of people that it has sufficient merits, it is necessary to connect the theme of work with other issues connected with other known issues, note what are its interests, its originality, or even your needs.

As per the experts of research paper writing service it is also necessary to relate it, if possible, to other works of the same researcher who is applying for the scholarship, or to work done in his laboratory or university, because that way it will be emphasized that this is the ideal person and that is the ideal place to carry out that kind of research. People who evaluate proposals are not always experts in the field, nor do they have to be. Within the humanities, a study project of the architectural design of the city of Paris, for example, can be judged by people from history, classical languages, literature, philology …

We have to make those people believe that our project is valuable, even if it is not visible, especially in the sight of the profane. We will use more or less direct procedures, but never self-praise, which take away authority from the author of a project. The cost of the project itself should be done as soon as possible and in the most convincing way possible.

In the research paper we can find several main sections, like:

1. The title

The title should be short, concise and clear. It is advisable that the title is written after drafting the core of the manuscript (introduction, material-methods, results, and discussion). Titles can be informative (“High incidence of myocardial infarctions in smokers”) or indicative (“Incidence of myocardial infarction in smokers”).

 2. How to prepare a summary?

A good summary should allow the reader to identify, quickly and accurately, the basic content of the work; It must not have more than 250 words and must be written in the past, except for the last paragraph or concluding phrase. It should not provide information or conclusion that is not present in the text, nor should it cite bibliographic references. The problem being investigated and its objective should be clear. In general, the Summary should: Set out the main objectives and scope of the investigation. Describe the methodology used. Summarize the results, generalize the main conclusions. The most frequent errors in the writing of the summary are:

  • Do not clearly ask the question
  • Be too long
  • Be too detailed

3. “Introduction” the most important part

The Introduction is, therefore, the presentation of a question. Why this work has been done? The interest you have in the scientific context? Previous work on the subject and what aspects are not clear, which are the subject of our research? The last paragraph of the introduction is used to summarize the objective of the study. oppose that what we propose is a study on the history of Equatorial Guinea. We can start with a summary of the evolution of Guinea: its colonial stage, its present situation, the degradation of its economy and its culture. In making this summary, we will highlight the elements that interest us for what we are going to propose next; for example, how the economy of the colony worked, what changes occurred after independence. In the second paragraph, we can say something like this:

In studies on Equatorial Guinea, it is often said that this state is a “Cambodia without ideology” and much attention has been paid to the psychopathology of its president, Francisco Macias Nguema. My work opposes that approach, which is too naive. Part of the explanation of the decline of Guinea should be sought in the structure of the colonial economy.

This introduction should be followed by a good explanation of the working thesis, always contrasted, implicitly, with the “naive” studies referred to at the beginning. All methodological developments will also be noted. In the example of Guinea, the new thing could be that the author of the proposal intends to conduct personal interviews in that country, in order to collect testimonies about the events that took place in the last twenty years, and that are poorly documented.

As stated in the example from research paper writing service we should outline it and it could be explained that the work on Guinea will allow knowing the role of traditional ideologies in today’s Africa, will contribute to studies on the economic dependence of Africa, will shed new light on the rupture of neo-colonial relations between a new state and its ancient metropolis, etc. The concrete work that is going to be carried out matters, as well as its projections and its interest for one or several disciplines.

Finally, take care of vocabulary: try to be precise without using technical expressions that may be incomprehensible. Remember that your work will be read by educated and intelligent people, but not necessarily be experts in your field.

4. Material and methods

Answer the question of “how the study was done”.

The material and methods section is organized into five areas:

  • Design: the design of the experiment is described (randomized, controlled, cases and controls, clinical trial, prospective, etc.)
  • The population on which the study was made. Describe the sample frame and how your selection has been made
  • Environment: indicates where the study has been done (hospital, primary care, school, etc.).
  • Interventions: techniques, treatments (always use generic names), measurements and units, pilot tests, devices, and technology, etc. are described.
  • Statistical analysis: indicates the statistical methods used and how the data has been analyzed.

 5. Results

It includes the tables and figures that clearly express the results of the study conducted by the researcher. The results must fulfill two functions: First, it expresses the results of the experiments described in Material and Methods. Second, is to present the evidence supporting such results, whether in the form of figures, tables or in the same text. The first paragraph of this text should be used to summarize in a concise, clear and direct sentence, the main finding of the study. This section should be written using past verbs.

 6. Discussion

Most readers will go after reading the summary (although experts recommend that, after reading the title, the first thing to read is the material and methods) and the most complex section to elaborate and organize.

Begin the Discussion with the answer to the question of the Introduction, followed immediately with the evidence presented in the results that corroborate it. Write this section in the present (“these data indicate that”), because the findings of the work are already considered scientific evidence.

Also read: How to Write a Research Paper Intro Paragraph

Bring out the light and comment clearly, instead of hiding them, the anomalous results, giving them an explanation as coherent as possible or simply saying that this is what you have found, even if at the moment there is no explanation. If the author does not, surely the editor will. Speculate and theorize with imagination and logic. This can stoke the interest of the readers. Include the recommendations you deem appropriate, if appropriate. Above all, avoid drawing more conclusions than their results allow, however much those conclusions are less spectacular than expected or desired.

 7. Bibliography

The bibliography will be cited according to the regulations required by the chosen journal or the Scientific Publisher, so there are different internationally recognized standards that must be taken into account by the researcher. The level of updating of the scientific article will be determined according to the bibliographies consulted and that is in the last 5 years of publication.

Conclusion

The introduction should be as short as possible, consistent, clear and informative; It should make the reader feel like reading the rest of the article, preparing the stages of the article, putting the study into perspective. The purpose of the introduction is to arouse interest, not being too long or confusing. NO: there must be answers or results, otherwise, it sounds like a summary or abstract. The response of the work should not be included: the objective of the section is to introduce and not close the discussion. The introduction should address the hypothesis or the main question of the investigation and the function of the hypothesis is to put the question in an understandable context, and we must answer: Why was this question asked? Why is this question important? Why does this hypothesis make sense? And what will the study contribute to the existing bibliography? It should make the reader understand why the author conducted the study and wants to read its results. The question must be clear and can be formulated as a question or as a hypothesis. – Verb tense: the general rule is to use the Present tense for the question because it asks if something is true in general and not in the experiment. But depending on the structure it can be used, sometimes the Past tense: “in previous studies we examined …” or “our objective was …”. The writing becomes more emphatic if the 1st person singular or plural (I/we) is used. The introduction with the objective and the study hypothesis must be concluded.

 

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